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UVC LED新应用层出不穷,背后的技术原理有哪些?

受疫情的推动,UV LED产业发展加速,尤其是拥有消杀功能的UVC LED,在较短的时间内实现了市场教育。越来越多的企业布局相关产业,UVC LED的应用领域也越来越广泛。较常见的应用在于表面,空气及水的杀菌消毒,主流的下游应用包括:

Driven by the epidemic, the development of the UV LED industry has accelerated, especially the UVC LED with its killing function, which has achieved market education in a relatively short period of time.

More and more companies are deploying related industries, and the application fields of UVC LEDs are becoming more and more extensive.

The more common applications are surface, air and water sterilization. Mainstream downstream applications include:

近来,UVC LED市场推出了一个又一个新奇的应用:将UVC 嵌入到口罩及面罩中,过滤空气中的灰尘、病原体及致敏原等污染物;UV LED嵌入无人机,应用于公共交通;照射UVC LED即可在30秒内杀灭病毒的手套;苹果申请AI环境感应芯片专利,搭载UVC LED分解有机污染物以增加检测的准确性;取代传统LED,深紫外应用于无线光通信LiFi传输等。

Recently, the UVC LED market has launched one novel application after another: embedding UVC into masks and face masks to filter air pollutants such as dust, pathogens and allergens;UV LEDs are embedded in drones and used in public transportation; gloves that can kill viruses within 30 seconds by irradiating UVC LEDs;
Apple applied for the AI environmental sensor chip patent, equipped with UVC LED to decompose organic pollutants to increase the accuracy of detection; instead of traditional LED, deep ultraviolet is used in wireless optical communication LiFi transmission.

将UVC 嵌入到口罩 

Embed UVC in the mask

 

取代传统LED,深紫外应用于无线光通信LiFi传输

Replacing traditional LEDs, deep ultraviolet is used in wireless optical communication LiFi transmission

UVC LED发光及消杀原理 /  Principle of UVC LED light emission and elimination
 

利用半导体发光原理制造UVC波段的光源,氮化铝、氮化镓或铟镓氮等三五族半导体材料的禁带宽度落在蓝光到紫外光波段之间,它们的电子与价带上的空穴复合,复合时得到的能量释放出去,通过改变材料配比,可以释放出不同波段的紫外线和可见光。

Utilizing the principle of semiconductor light emission to produce light sources in the UVC band, the band gap of the third and fifth group semiconductor materials such as aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, or indium gallium nitride falls between the blue and ultraviolet wavelengths, and their electrons and valence bands are empty. Hole recombination, the energy obtained during recombination is released. By changing the material ratio, different wavelengths of ultraviolet and visible light can be released.

 

根据光量子论,波长越短,能量越强,对生物的破坏性越大。短波紫外光甚至具备超强的破坏力,能斩断多数化合物的化学链结,还能破坏细胞的RNA与DNA,使其立即死亡或失去繁殖能力。

According to photon theory, the shorter the wavelength, the stronger the energy, and the greater the damage to living things. Short-wave ultraviolet light even has super destructive power, can cut the chemical chain of most compounds, and can destroy the RNA and DNA of cells, causing them to die immediately or lose their ability to reproduce.

UVC LED相关技术原理   UVC LED related technical principles
 

1. 芯片:UVC芯片以倒装芯片为目前主流,但还不一定是最优结构。垂直芯片也有其独特优势,如电流扩展更好,吸光少,散热好等。但因材料主要是AlN,要将其与蓝宝石衬底剥离,需要波长短、能量大的准分子激光器才能做到,但这又会对外延材料造成严重损伤。故截止目前仍然只有LGIT能够做到垂直结构UVC LED的量产。如果能找到既经济又简单的剥离方法,那么垂直结构有机会成为UVC LED大功率主流。

1. Chip: Flip chip is the mainstream of UVC chip, but it is not necessarily the optimal structure. Vertical chips also have their unique advantages, such as better current expansion, less light absorption, and better heat dissipation. However, because the material is mainly AlN, to peel it from the sapphire substrate, an excimer laser with a short wavelength and high energy is needed. However, this will cause serious damage to the epitaxial material. So until now, only LGIT can achieve mass production of vertical UVC LEDs. If an economical and simple peeling method can be found, then the vertical structure has the opportunity to become the mainstream of UVC LED high-power.

2. 封装:主要考虑UVC LED的散热和出光。在材料方面,经过多年的发展,目前市面上UVC LED基本以倒装芯片搭配高导热氮化铝基板的方案为主。固晶方式有银浆、锡膏、金锡共晶焊,其中共晶方式主要通过助焊剂进行焊接,相对能有效提升芯片与基板的结合强度,导热率,更为可靠,有利于UVC LED的品质管控。

2. Packaging: Mainly consider the heat dissipation and light emission of UVC LED. In terms of materials, after years of development, UVC LEDs currently on the market are basically based on flip-chip solutions with high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride substrates. The die bonding methods include silver paste, solder paste, gold-tin eutectic soldering. The eutectic method is mainly soldered by flux, which can effectively improve the bonding strength and thermal conductivity of the chip and the substrate. It is more reliable and is beneficial to the UVC LED. Quality control.

 

3. 寿命:UVC LED长时间工作会光衰引起老化,尤其对大功率UVC LED来说,光衰问题更加严重。在衡量UVC LED的寿命时,仅仅以灯的损坏作为UVC LED寿命的终点是远远不够的,应该以UVC LED的光衰减百分比来规定LED的寿命。目前从产业主流水平看,在UVC LED应用中,消费类产品L70(1000H)、家电类产品达L50(10000H)较佳。

3. Lifespan: UVC LEDs working for a long time will cause aging due to light decay, especially for high-power UVC LEDs, the light decay problem is more serious. When measuring the life of UVC LEDs, it is not enough to just take the damage of the lamp as the end of the life of UVC LEDs. The life of the LED should be specified by the percentage of light attenuation of the UVC LED. From the current mainstream level of the industry, in UVC LED applications, L70 (1000H) for consumer products and L50 (10000H) for home appliances are better.

 

4. 发光效率:一般指UVC LED的外部量子效率(EQE),是器件内部量子效率与取出效率的乘积。内部量子效率(IQE)主要与器件本身的特性(如器件材料的能带、缺陷、杂质)、外延片材料及结构等相关。而器件的取出效率指的是器件内部产生的光子在经过器件本身的吸收、折射、反射后,实际在器件外部可测量到的数据。因此,影响取出效率的因素包括了器件材料本身的吸收、散射、结构及封装材料的折射率差等。

4. Luminous efficiency: generally refers to the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the UVC LED, which is the product of the internal quantum efficiency of the device and the extraction efficiency. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is mainly related to the characteristics of the device itself (such as the energy band, defects, and impurities of the device material), the material and structure of the epitaxial wafer. The extraction efficiency of a device refers to the data that can be actually measured outside the device after the photons generated inside the device are absorbed, refracted, and reflected by the device itself. Therefore, factors affecting the extraction efficiency include the absorption and scattering of the device material itself, the structure and the refractive index difference of the packaging material

 

·内部量子效率(IQE):主要与器件本身的特性,如器件材料的能带、缺陷、杂质、外延片材料及结构等相关;

·Internal quantum efficiency (IQE): mainly related to the characteristics of the device itself, such as the energy band, defects, impurities, epitaxial wafer materials and structure of the device materials;

·取出效率:器件内部产生的光子在经过器件本身的吸收、折射、反射后,实际在器件外部可测量到的数目;

· Extraction efficiency: the number of photons generated inside the device that can be actually measured outside the device after being absorbed, refracted and reflected by the device itself;

·外部量子效率(EQE):器件内部量子效率与取出效率的乘积;

·External quantum efficiency (EQE): the product of the internal quantum efficiency of the device and the extraction efficiency;

·电光转换效率(WPE):最终成品通电后,有多少电能转换成了光能。主要考量输入功率、EQE和芯片情况,是目前较常用来评估发光效率的重要指标;
·Electric-optical conversion efficiency (WPE): After the final product is energized, how much electrical energy is converted into light energy. Mainly consider the input power, EQE and chip conditions, which are currently more commonly used important indicators to evaluate luminous efficiency;

 
UVC LED拥有的特性  Features of UVC LED
 

1. 电气特性:在电流控制型器件中,正向导通电压的极小变化会引起正向电流的很大变化(指数级别),反向漏电流很小,有反向击穿电压。UVC LED正向电压随温度升高而变小,具有负温度系数。UVC LED消耗的功率,一部分转化为光能,剩下的就转化为热能。

1. Electrical characteristics: In current-controlled devices, a very small change in forward voltage will cause a large change in forward current (exponential level), reverse leakage current is small, and reverse breakdown voltage. The forward voltage of UVC LED decreases with increasing temperature and has a negative temperature coefficient. Part of the power consumed by UVC LEDs is converted into light energy, and the rest is converted into heat energy.

2. 光学特性:UVC LED提供半宽度很大的单色光,由于半导体能隙随温度上升而减小,因此它所发射峰值波长会随温度上升而增长,即光谱红移。UVC LED发光亮度与正向电流成正比,电流增大,发光亮度也近似增大。另发光亮度也与环境温度有关,温度高时,复合效率下降,发光强度减小。

2. Optical characteristics: UVC LED provides monochromatic light with a large half-width. Since the semiconductor energy gap decreases with temperature rise, the peak wavelength emitted by it will increase with temperature rise, that is, spectral red shift. The luminous brightness of UVC LED is proportional to the forward current, and the current increases, the luminous brightness also increases approximately. In addition, the luminous brightness is also related to the ambient temperature. When the temperature is high, the recombination efficiency decreases and the luminous intensity decreases.

 

3. 热学特性:小电流下,UVC LED温升不明显。若环境温度较高,UVC LED的主波长就会红移,亮度会下降,发光均匀性、一致性变差,所以散热设计很关键。

3. Thermal characteristics: Under small current, the temperature rise of UVC LED is not obvious. If the ambient temperature is high, the main wavelength of the UVC LED will be red-shifted, the brightness will be reduced, and the uniformity and consistency of the light will be worsened, so the heat dissipation design is critical.

 

UVC LED以其小型化、无毒害、使用便捷等特点,能较好的应用于各式各样的场景中。随着UVC LED技术发展日益成熟,市场对UVC LED的认知和接受度越来越高,也将会有更多的常规和新奇的应用采用UVC LED技术,给人们带来全新的卫生安全体验。 

UVC LEDs can be better used in a variety of scenes due to their miniaturization, non-toxicity, and convenient use. With the development of UVC LED technology becoming more and more mature, the market’s awareness and acceptance of UVC LEDs is getting higher and higher, and there will be more conventional and novel applications adopting UVC LED technology to bring people a brand-new health and safety experience .